Although 1/f fluctuation was originally observed on electric current passing in a vacuum tube, it is not limited to this setting. It is now known that electric conductance through metals, semiconductors, etc., is always subject to 1/f fluctuations which has been observed, for instance in the time generated by atomic clocks, acoustic frequency fluctuations of musical sound and traffic current fluctuations on expressways. The recent discovery that biological rhythms also obey 1/f fluctuations has been the subject of much discussion in the past ten years especially in Japan, and a number of related papers were contributed to ICNF-91. These add a new dimension to the present conference, which covers a wide variety of 1/f fluctuations from transistors to biology.
Noise and 1/f Fluctuation in Materials/ Noise and 1/f Flucuation in Electronic Devices/ Quantum Noise, Theories and Experiments/ Fluctuations in Precision Measurements/ Noise and Fluctuation, Esoecially 1/f Fluctuations in Various Levels of Biology/ Fluctuation Phenomena in Sociology and Economics/ Chaos and Fractals/ Models and theories of Noise and 1/f Fluctuations/ Other Topics Relevant to Noise and Fluctuations